The International Dictionary of the Bible gives the following derivation of Golgotha:
(From the Greek golgotha, from Aramaic, gulgalta’, skull). From the Hebrew gulgoleth, which implies a bald, round, skull-like mound of hillock. The Latin name, Calvarius (“bald skull”) has been retained in the form of Calvary (Luke 23:33). . . . Two explanations of the name are found (1) It was a place of execution and therefore abounded in skulls; (2) the place had the appearance of a skull when viewed from a short distance. (395)
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Gordan’s Calvary are suggested sites of Golgotha, but we cannot be sure of its location. The only certain information we have is that it was outside Jerusalem (John 19:17) and near the city (John 19:20; Hebrews 13:12-13).
Curse of the Cross
Crucifixion was considered one of the most cruel and shameful deaths that could be administered to a person. “The Romans reserved crucifixion, however, for slaves, robbers, assassins, and the like or for rebellious provincials. Only rarely were Roman citizens subjected to this kind of treatment (Cicero, In Ver. 1. 5. 66)” (Hawthorne 1038). Based on Deuteronomy 21:22-23, the Jews considered those accursed who were hanged on a stake. Jesus, the pure lamb of God, endured the shame of the cross (Hebrews 12:2) and became a curse for us (Galatians 3:13).
Forgiveness Only Through Deity
Golgotha is central to Christianity (1 Corinthians 2:1-2), for there Jesus’ crucifixion made forgiveness of sins available for all mankind, including all who lived before (Romans 3:24-26; Hebrews 9:15) and after the cross (1 Timothy 1:16, KJV). The only antidote for sin throughout the history of the world is not the blood of animals (Hebrews 10:4) or human accomplishment (Ephesians 2:8-9), but Jesus’ blood (Matthew 26:28; Hebrews 9:22; Revelation 1:5). One man would be able to bear the sins of only one other person, but the divine Son of God, who is more valuable and whose blood is more precious (1 Peter 1:18-19) than all humanity, through His one sacrifice can forgive the sins of the whole world (John 1:29; Hebrews 10:15-19).