Warren Christian Apologetics Center
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Sufficient Evidence Archive

Sufficient Evidence: A Journal of Christian Apologetics is devoted to setting forth evidence for the existence of God, the divine origin of the Bible, and the deity of Jesus Christ, and is published biannually (Spring and Fall).




The International Dictionary of the Bible gives the following derivation of Golgotha:

(From the Greek golgotha, from Aramaic, gulgalta’, skull). From the Hebrew gulgoleth, which implies a bald, round, skull-like mound of hillock. The Latin name, Calvarius (“bald skull”) has been retained in the form of Calvary (Luke 23:33). . . . Two explanations of the name are found (1) It was a place of execution and therefore abounded in skulls; (2) the place had the appearance of a skull when viewed from a short distance. (395)

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Gordan’s Calvary are suggested sites of Golgotha, but we cannot be sure of its location. The only certain information we have is that it was outside Jerusalem (John 19:17) and near the city (John 19:20; Hebrews 13:12-13).


Curse of the Cross

Crucifixion was considered one of the most cruel and shameful deaths that could be administered to a person. “The Romans reserved crucifixion, however, for slaves, robbers, assassins, and the like or for rebellious provincials. Only rarely were Roman citizens subjected to this kind of treatment (Cicero, In Ver. 1. 5. 66)” (Hawthorne 1038). Based on Deuteronomy 21:22-23, the Jews considered those accursed who were hanged on a stake. Jesus, the pure lamb of God, endured the shame of the cross (Hebrews 12:2) and became a curse for us (Galatians 3:13).


Forgiveness Only Through Deity

Golgotha is central to Christianity (1 Corinthians 2:1-2), for there Jesus’ crucifixion made forgiveness of sins available for all mankind, including all who lived before (Romans 3:24-26; Hebrews 9:15) and after the cross (1 Timothy 1:16, KJV). The only antidote for sin throughout the history of the world is not the blood of animals (Hebrews 10:4) or human accomplishment (Ephesians 2:8-9), but Jesus’ blood (Matthew 26:28; Hebrews 9:22; Revelation 1:5). One man would be able to bear the sins of only one other person, but the divine Son of God, who is more valuable and whose blood is more precious (1 Peter 1:18-19) than all humanity, through His one sacrifice can forgive the sins of the whole world (John 1:29; Hebrews 10:15-19).


Golgotha Prophesied in Old Testament

The multiplicity of prophecies fulfilled at Golgotha, even more than those relating to Jesus’ birth and resurrection, are impressive evidence of Jesus’ deity. God foreknew, foretold, and predetermined Jesus’ crucifixion. Peter proclaimed this when he told the Jews, who had requested Jesus’ crucifixion (Matthew 27:22), “Him [Jesus], being delivered by the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by lawless hands, have crucified, and put to death” (Acts 2:23). [All quotations are from the New King James Version unless otherwise noted.] He later declared that “the things which God announced beforehand by the mouth of all the prophets, that His Christ should suffer, He has thus fulfilled” (Acts 3:18).

Jesus told Peter and the mob that came to apprehend Him that what was happening fulfilled Scriptures (Matthew 26:51-56; Mark 14:48-49). After Jesus’ death and resurrection, He said that all prophecy concerning Him had been fulfilled (Luke 24:44). Peter and Paul affirmed the same truth (Acts 13:27-29; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4). Because these statements do not provide specific references, we must search the Scriptures to find these prophecies (Acts 17:11). An asterisk (*) is placed after 20 of the 34 following prophecies relative to Jesus’ death, indicating they are referred to or quoted in the New Testament as being fulfilled. What is amazing is that the New Testament writers, who did not have ready access to the Scriptures found these passages without the help of a computer.

Some prophecies were typology, like the Passover lamb (1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Peter 1:19-20) and the serpent being lifted up in the wilderness (John 3:14). Some are considered double fulfillment, which is possible (Zechariah 11:12-13), but even if they are, this would not disqualify them as prophecies concerning Jesus, especially if the New Testament applies them to Him.

An effort to discuss the pros and cons that have been presented concerning each of the Old Testament prophecies, whether they apply or how they apply to Jesus, is not within the scope of this article. A discussion of any one of the prophecies could demand more space than allowed for this article.


Fulfilled Prophecies

The prophecies Jesus fulfilled leading up to and including Golgotha give evidence of His deity. They state that He would be:

•        Hated without a cause (Psalm 69:4*; John 15:25).
•        Stood against by kings and rulers (Psalm 2:2*; Acts 4:25-26).
•        Betrayed by a friend (Psalm 41:9*; 55:12-13; Matthew 26:23-25; John 13:18-27).
•        Sold for 30 pieces of silver (Zechariah 11:12*; Matthew 26:14-15; 27:3-10).
•        Priced the amount of silver that would purchase a potter’s field (Zechariah 11:13*; Matthew 27:10).

Hendriksen explains a seeming mistake by Matthew, who attributed Zechariah 11:12-13 to Jeremiah. 
What Matthew does is this . . . he combines two prophecies, one from Zechariah and one from Jeremiah. Then he mentions not the minor prophet but the major prophet as the source of the reference. . . . Mark does this also. Thus Mark 1:2, 3 refers first to Malachi, then to Isaiah. Nevertheless Mark ascribes both prophecies to ‘Isaiah,’ the major prophet. (948)

•        Silent and die as a lamb led to the slaughter or a sheep being sheared (Isaiah 53:7*; Acts 8:32-35).
•        Denied judgment concerning His innocence (Isaiah 53:8*; Acts 8:33-35).
•        Without sin and with no deceit in His mouth (Isaiah 53:9*; 1 Peter 2:21-22).
•        The corner stone laid in Zion (Isaiah 28:16*; 1 Peter 2:6).
•        The corner stone rejected by the builders (Psalm 118:22*; Matthew 21:42; Acts 4:11; 1 Peter 2:4-7).
•        A stumbling stone (Isaiah 8:14*; Romans 9:32-33; 1 Peter 2:8).
•        Prefigured by the Passover lamb (Exodus 12:3-11*; 1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Peter 1:18-19).
•        Like a smitten shepherd whose sheep would be scattered (Zechariah 13:7*; Matthew 26:31, 56; Mark 14:27, 50).
•        Numbered with transgressors (Isaiah 53:12; Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27-28).
•        Struck and spat on (Isaiah 50:6; Matthew 26:67; Luke 22:63).
•        Killed as a transgressor outside the camp (Leviticus 24:12-13; Numbers 15:35-36; John 19:20; Hebrew 13:12-13).
•        Sneered at with heads that wagged in reproach (Psalm 22:7, NASB; 109:25; Matthew 27:39).
•        Mocked with words that He trusted God, let Him deliver Him (Psalm 22:7-8; Matthew 27:29, 41-43; Mark 15:29; Luke 23:35).
•        Put to death for the sin of the people (Isaiah 53:8*; John 11:50-51; 18:14).
•        Pierced in His hands and feet (Psalm 22:16; Luke 24:39; John 20:25-27).
•        Mourned (Luke 23:27) and looked at when He was pierced (Zechariah 12:10*; John 19:34-37).
•        Willing to make intercession for transgressors, including His asking forgiveness for His executioners (Isaiah 53:12; Luke 23:34).
•        Numbered with transgressors (Isaiah 53:12; Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27-28; Luke 23:39-41).
•        Stripped of His clothing, for which others gambled (Psalm 22:18*; John 19:23-24).
•        Offered wine and gall to satisfy His thirst (Psalm 69:21*; Matthew 27:34; John 19:28-29).
•        Spoken against with words of slander (Psalm 22:8*; Matthew 27:43; Mark 15:32).
•        Looked upon and stared at (Psalm 22:17; Luke 23:35).
•        The One to bring justice to victory (Isaiah 42:4), which Jesus did through His blood shed on the cross (Romans 5:9; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 Corinthians 15:57).
•        Heard to say, “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” (Psalm 22:1*; Matthew 27:46).
•        Heard to say, “Into Your hands I commit My Spirit” (Psalm 31:5*; Luke 23:46).
•        Spared His bones being broken (Psalm 34:20*; John 19:33-36).
•        Watched far off by His friends (Psalm 38:11; Matthew 27:55-56; Mark 15:40; Luke 23:49).
•        Given the reproaches of those who reproached God (Psalm 69:9*; Romans 15:3).
•        Buried with “the wicked—But with the rich” (Isaiah 53:9; Matthew 27:57-60; Mark 15:43-46; Luke 23:50-53; John 19:38-41).

The NKJV translation brings out the meaning of Matthew 27:57. Delitzsch concurs. “He was to have lain where the body of criminals lie, but He was really laid in a grave that was intended for the corpse of a rich man” (328). Young also agrees, “Men assigned the grave to the servant with the criminals. After he had a painful death, however, he was with a rich man” (352-53).

God’s love for us (John 15:13; Romans 5:6-8) moved Him to withhold His life giving power (Acts 17:28) and allow Jesus to die on the cross for our sins. Thus, Jesus cried out, “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” (Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34).

These many prophecies concerning the events leading up to and including those at Golgotha could be fulfilled only by the planning of God and His divine Son.


Events of Golgotha Prophesied by Jesus

Jesus prophesied the events that He fulfilled at Golgotha, which reveal His divine nature. If He were simply a mere human, He could have neither fulfilled what He prophesied nor manipulated people to fulfill His prophecies. Jesus foreknew and/or foretold,

•        The time and hour of His crucifixion (Matthew 26:18, 45; John 7:6, 8; 30; 8:20; 12:23, 17:1).
•        He would be betrayed (Matthew 26:45; Mark 14:18-21; John 6:64; 13:11; Luke 22:21-22).
•        Judas would betray Him (Matthew 26:21-25; Mark 14:1821; John 6:71; 13:21-26).
•        Peter would deny Him (Matthew 26:33-34; Mark 14:29, 30; Luke 22:31-34).
•        He would be rejected and suffer at the hands of Jewish elders, chief priests, and scribes and be sentenced to die (Mark 8:31; Luke 9:22).
•        In Jerusalem He would be delivered to the Jews to be killed (Matthew 16:21; 20:18; Mark 10:33; Luke 18:31-32).
•        He would be given to the Gentiles to be mocked, insulted, spit on, and killed (Matthew 16:21; 20:18-19; Mark 10:33-34; Luke 18:31-32).
•        His body would be given and His blood be shed for us (Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20; 1 Corinthians 11:23-25).
•        He would be He lifted up on a stake as was the serpent that Moses lifted up in the wilderness (John 3:14-16).
•        His type of death, that of being lifted up, thus crucified instead of being killed with a sword or stoned, as was the custom of the Jews (John 12:32-33; 18:31-32).
•        His death and resurrection by saying, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up” (John 2:19-22).
•        He would be buried, implying also His death (Matthew 16:12; Mark 14:8; John 12:7).
•        He would rise the third day (Matthew 16:21; 17:23; Mark 9:31; 10:34; Luke 18:33; 24:6-7).
•        He would lose only one of the apostles (John 17:12; 18:8-9).

Jesus’ fulfilled prophecies reveal His divine foresight, confirming His deity as the Son of God. Only deity—not angels (1 Peter 1:10-12), Satan and his angels, mankind, or any other created being—can foresee and accurately predict the future.


Golgotha’s Miraculous Events

The four unusual occurrences at Golgotha were miraculous in nature, which prove God was active during the death of His beloved Son in order to proclaim His deity.

The crucifixion took place the third hour Jewish time (nine o’clock Roman time) in the morning (Mark 15:25). Following His death on the cross, four miraculous events took place. First, the darkness that prevailed over all the land from the sixth hour (high noon) to the ninth hour (three in the afternoon) (Matthew 27:45; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44) was an act of God. Jack Lewis has correctly commented: “Though Luke 23:45 uses the word eclipse (eklipontos), a solar eclipse is not possible at the full moon of the Passover season; hence the darkness must be supernatural” (163).

Second, the temple curtain that separated the Holy place from the Holy of Holies (Exodus 26:33; Hebrews 9:3) “was torn in two from top to bottom” (Matthew 27:51). Edersheim wrote,

The Veils before the Holy Place were 40 cubits (60 feet) long, and 20 cubits (30 feet) wide, of the thickness of the palm of the hand, and wrought in 72 squares, which were joined together; and these Veils were so heavy, that, in the exaggerated language of the time it needed 300 priests to manipulate each. If the Veil was at all such as is described in the Talmud, it could not have been rent in twain by a mere earthquake of the fall of the lintel. (611)

Only God, and not man, could have torn this thick curtain from the top to the bottom. God may have been showing that He was ending the Jewish dispensation and was opening a new way of access to God. Under the Law only the high priest could enter through the veil into the most Holy Place, and that only once a year on behalf of the people. The new way that our High Priest, Jesus, opened through the veil of His flesh, that was prefigured by the temple veil, gives us ready access to the heavenly throne of grace (Hebrews 4:12-13; 6:19-20; 10:19-20).

Third,The earth quaked, and the rocks were split” (Matthew 27:51, emp. added). Chumbley stated, “This was not a natural quaking that accidentally coincided with Jesus’ death, but a Divinely caused event” (507). In this way God showed His presence and power as He did when Jesus was resurrected (Matthew 28:2), as He did when Paul and Silas were in prison at Philippi (Matthew 28:2; Acts 16:26), and at other times (1 Kings 19:11; Isaiah 29:6; Jeremiah 10:10; Revelation 8:5; 11:19; 16:18).

Fourth,The graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; and coming out of the graves after His resurrection, they went into the holy city and appeared to many” (Matthew 27:51b-53, emp. added). Only deity has the life giving power to raise the dead (John 5:26; Romans 1:4), which was shown when Jesus was raised.

Some think that the resurrection of the saints did not take place until the resurrection of Jesus; thus the verse should be punctuated to mean that the tombs were opened, but the saints being raised was not until the resurrection of Jesus, at which time they went into Jerusalem.

The centurion and the guards with him who experienced the miraculous events at Golgotha drew the conclusion that Jesus is the Son of God (Matthew 27:54; Mark 15:39). We also should draw the same conclusion from the events at Golgotha that Jesus is deity.

Some have objected to “the Son” instead of “a son” because no Greek article is used before Son, which is a possible objection, however, “The Greek phrase is literally ‘God’s Son’ (theou huios) and the Greek article is not required for definiteness” (Stagg 247).

Calling Jesus “the Son of God” implies that He has the divine nature of the Father. The Jews correctly accused Jesus as equating Himself with God by calling God, “Father,” and referring to Himself as the “Son of God” (John 5:18; 10:33, 36).


Jesus’ Innocent Death

The people who spoke about Jesus confirm Isaiah’s prophecy of Jesus’ innocence (Isaiah 53:9), which sinless innocence and goodness is found only in deity (Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; Luke 18:19; Romans 3:10). “In His humiliation His justice [“judgment;” KJV; NASB] was taken away” (Acts 8:33; Isaiah 53:8). Jesus had “committed no sin, nor was deceit found in his mouth” (1 Peter 2:22). The judgment pronounced on Jesus should have been, “Release Him; He is innocent,” instead of “Crucify Him” (Mark 15:13-14). Jesus’ innocence was seen in that:

•        The chief priests, elders, and the council were unable to find testimony that proved Jesus should be crucified. “Now the chief priests and all the council sought testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, but found none. For many bore witnesses against Him, but their testimonies did not agree” (Mark 14:55-56).
•        Judas recognized the innocence of Jesus, he said, “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood” (Matthew 27:4).
•        Pilate told the chief priests, rulers, and the people, “And indeed, having examined Him in your presence, I have found no fault in this Man concerning those things of which you accuse Him” (Luke 23:14: John 19:4, 6).
•        After saying this, he said, “no neither did Herod” (Luke 23:14-15).
•        Pilate’s wife told him, “Have nothing to do with that just Man, for I have suffered many things today in a dream because of Him” (Matthew 27:19).
•        One of the two criminals between whom Jesus was crucified said, “. . . we receive the due reward of our deeds; but this Man has done nothing wrong” (Luke 23:41).
•        The Roman centurion who saw Jesus die exclaimed, “Certainly this was a righteous [“innocent;” NASB] man” (Luke 23:47).

The deity of Jesus is confirmed by His having never sinned, as testified by those who observed His trial and crucifixion.
Other New Testament passages teach that Jesus was sinless and innocent (John 7:18; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 4:15; 1 Peter 1:19; 2:22; 3:18; 1 John 3:5).
Since we all have sinned (Romans 3:9, 10, 23), no person among us or group of people, but Jesus only as deity, through one obedient, righteousness act could take our sins at Golgotha and free us from the condemnation of sin (Romans 5:18; 8:1).


Testimony of Isaiah 53

New Testament statements that reflect expressions in Isaiah 53, verify that the whole chapter is prophecy about Jesus and confirms that He is the Messiah. Consider verses 3-12:

v. 3      “He was despised and rejected by men” (cf. Matthew 21:42; Mark 8:31; Luke 9:22; 17:25; Acts 4:11; 1 Peter 2:7).
v. 4      “Surely He has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows” (Matthew 8:17).
v. 5      “And by His stripes we are healed” (1 Peter 2:24).
v. 6      “All we like sheep have gone astray (Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 2:25). “And the Lord has laid on Him the iniquity of us all” (2 Corinthians 5:21).
v. 7      “Yet He opened not His mouth (Matthew 26:63; 27:14; Mark 14:61; 15:5; Luke 23:9; Acts 8:32).
“He was led as a lamb to the slaughter” (John 1:29; Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:18-19).
v. 9      “He had done no violence, Nor was any deceit in His mouth” (1 Peter 2:22).
v. 12    “And He bore the sin of many” (Romans 5:15, 19; 1 Peter 2:24).

Barton Payne wrote concerning the “Servant Songs” (Isaiah 42:1-7; 49:1-9; 50:4-9; 52:13-53:12; and 61:1-3) of which the most significant is the final exaltation ascribing worship to the “Servant” (Isaiah 49:7). His conclusion, after quoting Isaiah 53:12, is that Isaiah was writing about the Messiah. “Isaiah even says, in so many words, that the Servant is anointed, 61:1. He and the Messiah must be one and the same” (284).


Blessings from Golgotha

Before the world began (Acts 2:23; 1 Peter 1:2, 18-20; Revelation 13:8), God planned the miracle of Golgotha to provide blessings for all who would trust in Jesus’ blood and obey Him (Romans 3:24; Hebrews 5:9). This included the defeat of Satan, who sought to thwart Jesus’ plan to save mankind and accomplish his own goal to bring about the condemnation of all humanity. He entered Judas, having put into his heart to betray Jesus (John 13:3, 27) and to bring about His death. Satan could not foresee the future to realize that Jesus’ death would make possible the salvation of mankind.

From the beginning, Satan’s temptations through his lies (John 8:44; 1 Thessalonians 3:5; 1 Peter 5:8) led all who can sin, to sin (Romans 3:23) and become dead in sin (James 1:13-15; Ephesians 2:1, 5; Colossians 2:13). Jesus died on the cross “that through death He might destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil” (Hebrews 2:14). Jesus’ death at Golgotha defeated Satan, giving us the power to become dead to sin (Romans 6:1, 2) and alive with Jesus (Colossians 2:13). He rendered Satan powerless over all who flee for refuge for the forgiveness of sin in Him (Ephesians 1:7; Hebrews 6:18b-20).

Jesus showed His deity by defeating Satan and by providing for us, as only deity can, many blessings through His death at Golgotha. Jesus made possible:

•        The new covenant through His blood and death (Matthew 26:28; Hebrews 9:15-18).
•        Forgiveness of sins through His death (Matthew 26:28; Ephesians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 15:3).
•        The church purchased by His blood (Acts 20:28).
•        The gospel, God’s power to save though His death (Romans 1:16; 1 Corinthians 1:18; 15:1-3).
•        Grace by His blood through faith (Romans 3:24-25; Ephesians 1:7).
•        The demonstration of God’s love by His death (Romans 5:8).
•        Justification, reconciliation, and salvation through His blood (Romans 5:9-10).
•        Redemption through His blood (Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:14; Revelation 5:9; 1 Peter 1:18-19).
•        Nearness with God through Jesus’ blood (Ephesians 2:13).
•        Abolition of the Law, the wall that separated Jews and Gentiles, who now can be presented to God in one body by the cross (Ephesians 2:14-16).
•        Sanctification and cleansing by giving Himself (Ephesians 5:26; Hebrews 13:12).
•        Holy and blameless lives through His death (Ephesians 5:26-27; Colossians 1:21-23).
•        Reconciliation with God through His blood (Colossians 1:20).
•        Freedom from the fear of death through His death that defeated Satan (Hebrews 2:14-15).
•        Entrance into the Holiest of Holies, into heaven itself though His blood (Hebrews 10:19).
•        A pattern for our lives through His suffering (1 Peter 2:21).

Angels and human beings cannot provide the blessings of Golgotha. Jesus showed that He is deity by making these blessings available.
If Jesus is not deity, we are still in our sins, for only deity is able to pay our debt of sin.


Probability of Fulfillment

Some people conclude that by accident, Jesus’ planning, and/or His cunning, He brought about His death at Golgotha to fulfill Old Testament prophecies. Thus, the Jews and the military strength of the Romans unknowingly helped fulfill Scripture. The improbability of this happening proves that such assertions are unfounded.

The events of Golgotha could take place only through the planning and power of God. Jesus indicated this by what He told the Jews who came to take Him, “Or do you think that I cannot now pray to My Father, and He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of angels?” (Matthew 26:53). He told Pilate, “You could have no power at all against Me unless it had been given you from above” (John 19:11). Jesus stated, “I lay down My life that I may take it again. No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have the power to lay it down and I have the power to take it again” (John 10:17-18).

Peter Stoner, in his book Science Speaks, gives the following statistical probability of Jesus fulfilling the prophecies concerning His time, place, and manner of birth, betrayal, manner of death, people’s reaction, piercing, and burial.

We find that the chance that any man might have lived down to the present time and fulfilled all eight prophecies is 1 in 1017. That would be 1 in 100,000,000,000,000,000. In order to help us comprehend this staggering probability, Stoner illustrates it by supposing that we take 1017 silver dollars and lay them on the face of Texas. They will cover all of the state two feet deep. Now mark one of these silver dollars and stir the whole mass thoroughly, all over the state. Blindfold a man and tell him that he can travel as far as he wishes, but he must pick up one silver dollar and say that this is the right one. What chance would he have of getting the right one? Just the same chance that the prophets would have had of writing these eight prophecies and having them all come true in any one man, from their day to the present time, providing they wrote them in their own wisdom. (McDowell 175).

The fulfillment of Scripture, which could not possibly have been a matter of chance, took place as was predicted because of the planning, foresight, and foreknowledge of God, thus proving the deity of Jesus.



Golgotha brings us face to face with the reality that Jesus as deity fulfilled God’s purposes, according to God’s foreknowledge and previous planning, to provide salvation for a world of sinners (1 John 2:1-2). Jesus’ deity is seen, not only in the miracle of Golgotha, but also in God’s total planning in sending Him to take our sins so that we could be reconciled to God (2 Corinthians 5:17-21; Colossians 1:19-22). H. H. Halley well wrote:

Here is an Amazing thing: The Complete Story of Jesus’ Life, its Main Features, Events, and Accompanying Incidents, even in Minutest Detail, is Plainly Foretold in the Old Testament Scriptures. Is it not Overwhelming Evidence of the Existence and the Working of a MIND that Transcends the Human Mind to a degree that Awes us into Wonderment? (422)




Owen D. Olbricht holds two graduate degrees from Harding University, where he taught for ten years. He serves as Editor of the publication, Unique for Christ, published for university students. He also is the author of numerous scholarly works on various biblical topics. He may be reached at odolbricht@juno.com.


Works Cited

Chumbley, Kenneth L. The Gospel of Matthew. Nashville: Kenneth L. Chumbley, 1999.

Delitzsch, Franz. The Prophecies of Isaiah. Vol. 2. Trans. James Martin. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1884. 2 vols.

Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and times of Jesus the Messiah. Vol. 2. 8th ed. New York: Longman, Greens. 1898. 2 vols.

Halley, H. H. Halley Bible Handbook. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1965.

Hawthorne, G. F. The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. Vol. 1 A-C. Ed. Merrill C. Tenney, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975. 4 vols.

Hendriksen, William. New Testament Commentary, Exposition of the Gospel of Matthew. 1973. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007.

The International Dictionary of the Bible. Ed. J. D. Douglas, and Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.

McDowell, Josh. Evidence that Demands a Verdict. N.p.: Campus Crusade for Christ, 1972.

Lewis, Jack P. Living Word Commentary: The Gospel According to Matthew. Part 2. Ed. Everett Ferguson. Abilene: Abilene Christian U, 1984. 2 parts.

Payne, Barton. Encyclopedia of the Bible Prophecies. New York: Harper and Row, 1973.

Stagg, Frank. The Broadman Bible Commentary—Matthew. Vol. 8. Nashville: Broadman, 1969. 12 vols.

Young, Edward J. The Book of Isaiah. Vol. 3. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972.