Warren Christian Apologetics Center
Affirm. Defend. Advance.
Simple Logo.jpg

Articles - The Bible

How To Prove The Bible Is God's Word

Many in the world believe in God. They know that there is something greater and wiser than them in the universe. Unfortunately, while many believe in God, they do not believe that He has ever or will ever speak to them. To them, He is some cruel cause who created us, and then like a negligent pet owner, left us to fend for our own. Fortunately, this could be no further from the truth.

There is an all-powerful God who created all that you are and see, and for that matter, all that you do not see as well. The very breath you take bears witness to the design from your Creator. This is called a revelation: something that through deductive reasoning brings another truth into focus. There are two great volumes of revelation: natural and supernatural, i.e. general and special.

General Revelation

This is the revelation of God to all of mankind through His creation. God did not create us and then leave us without a witness to Him (Acts 14:17). The heavens declare His glory and the firmament shows His handiwork (Psalm 19:1-4). Hebrews 3:4 states, "For every house is built by someone, but He who built all things is God." Common sense tells us that if we are driving through the country and we come upon a two-story building with windows, doors, and a porch, that someone at some time built that house. Most would not come to the conclusion that a terrible tornado took those materials and threw them into the structure before them. I say "most" because that is exactly what some do! They look at the creation around them and in them and conclude that there is no design. Unfortunately, it is not for lack of evidence that they think this way, for we are fearfully and wonderfully made (Psalm 139:14).

Even Voltaire said, "The world poses a problem for me, and I cannot suppose that this clock exists without there having been a clock-maker." Still, it is this same ever-present revelation which fallen men refuse to accept. Blinded by sin, they refuse truth. "Knowing God, they glorified him not as God . . . but became vain in their reasonings. . . . Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools" (Romans 1:21-22). Next to the rational principle indispensable to any logical reasoning, man has introduced an irrational principle. He knows the truth regarding the eternal power of the divine Creator and regarding the order in creation established according to His will—a truth which alone makes possible any rational, scientific understanding of the world. But at the same time man irrationally suppresses this truth. Not willing for God to govern him, he prefers to interpret the facts of the universe in terms of an egocentric philosophy rather than a theocentric one, glorifying man rather than God. (Pache 15-16)

So why did God proceed with this type of revelation when so many would stop even at this early step and refuse to listen? Whether we like the truth, it is exactly this truth that we need the most.

There were three major reasons why all men received this natural revelation. (1) Man could possess a sense of deity. (2) Man could possess a sense of right and wrong. Man knows that he has a sense which tells him that he ought to do some things and ought not do others (Rom. 2:14, 15). "Even dictators who are about to break a treaty or commit a flagrant aggression find it necessary to discover highsounding moral reasons for their deeds." (3) Man would be without excuse. "For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made. that they may be without excuse" (Rom. 1 :20). (Flatt 51)

There is also general revelation in the moral sense of man. "In creating man in His image, God endowed him with a moral and a spiritual sense" (Pache 16). Note though, that the conscience is a trainable thing. With no input, or the wrong input, man will possess the sense of ought (I ought to do this or that), but this sense may equate jumping ahead in a line with crushing a child. The conscience tells man that there is a right and wrong, and when correctly trained, will lead man to find that moral law that is greater than even he.

 Special Revelation

There is an inherent problem with general revelation. While general revelation leads one to an all-knowing, all-powerful Creator and Designer of the world, one's relation to said Creator is left unanswered. Special revelation is not only letting the creation do the unveiling, but rather the active unveiling by that Creator Himself to His creation. Special revelation results in knowledge of God and His will and purpose that cannot be known solely by general revelation. The Bible . . . affirms the need for this special revelation. In Jeremiah 10:23, the prophet declares, "0 LORD, I know the way of man is not in himself; It is not in man who walks to direct his own steps."

Without special revelation there are many things that man can never learn of, no matter how intelligent he may be.

l .       Man's destiny. Jesus in John states, "Do not marvel at this; for the hour is coming in which all who are in the graves will hear His voice and come forth—those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of condemnation."

2.       Man's fall from God's grace in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3).

3.       God's plan of redemption (1 Corinthians 1:21).

4.       The number of persons in the Godhead (2 Corinthians 13:14).

5.       The person and work of Jesus (John 20:30-31).

Possibility of Special Revelation

We have discussed the necessity of general and special revelation. But is special revelation from this Creator even possible? This may seem like a useless point, but many in the world genuinely believe that special revelation is impossible,

Some philosophers have denied such a possibility, saying, "How could the Infinite communicate with the finite, the Creator with the creature? Is absolute truth expressible in the relative terms of human language?" But do we not see, as an everyday occurrence, a father instructing his son word by word, adapting his thought and vocabulary to the child's comprehension? Likewise, a traveler describes the unknown by beginning in terms of the known. God acts thus when He condescends to where we are in order to communicate His truth to us in an intelligible manner. (Pache 12-13)

It is possible for God to reveal Himself above what He has revealed in nature, because a Being who could not reveal Himself above natural revelation would be a limited Being, and therefore would not be God. This sounds circular, but truly, if I, a severely limited man, can teach my pet dog to do tricks through communication, why could not the creator of the entire universe stoop to my understanding to communicate? The point is that if He could not, then He is not all-powerful, and thus, not truly God.

Since humankind needs revelation from God to reveal specifically His will, and since it must be in understandable language for us to receive it, surely it is possible that God in His infinite nature can provide such a revelation.

Probability of Special Revelation

Special revelation from God is not only possible, but is even probable based on two realities: (1) God's nature and (2) man's nature. First, let us examine the nature of a Creator who is all powerful and perfectly good.

God is a moral being, and as such, if special revelation is good for man, it seems that God would then do that for man. It would seem that God would nurture His creation as a father to his children. It seems unlikely that God would make a creation and not want to communicate.

Let us emphasize one very important fact: revelation is of necessity an act of God. The intimate thoughts of a man can be disclosed only by the man himself (l Corinthians 2:11). Even so, and in a far deeper sense, no one but the Spirit of God can make us understand the mysteries of the Deity. . . . If man could sound out these mysteries all by himself and explain them, he would be equal with God. The thoughts of the Lord infinitely surpass ours. Irenaeus rightly said, "The Lord taught us that no one can know God unless God Himself be the teacher; that is, without God, God cannot be known. (Pache 13)

Now, let us examine the nature of man with respect to special revelation. It seems that man's nature is exactly fitted to receive such a revelation from God. His mental character is such to understand this. His moral character is such to necessitate profit from special revelation. Man has within himself the capacity of no other creation on Earth: to contemplate and to worship his Creator.

A revelation which would influence him to act right, and yet without forcing him, and thereby destroying his freedom, and making it impossible for him to act either right or wrong, is certainly not improbable. . . . But more than this, not only can man understand and profit by a revelation, but he earnestly desires it. A thoughtful man cannot help wishing to know why he is placed in this world; why he is given free will; how he is meant to use his freedom; and what future, if any, is in store for him hereafter: in short, what was God's object in creating him. . . . And therefore as this result of man's nature was not only brought about by God, but must have been foreknown, and intended by Him; it is not improbable that He should satisfy this craving which He has Himself produced. Moreover, it cannot be satisfied in any other way, for the knowledge is by hypothesis superhuman, and therefore out of man's own reach. And it may be added, the more we realise this, and feel that God is unknowable, in the sense that we can gain no satisfactory knowledge about Him by human science and reasoning, so much the more likely does it seem that He should give us such knowledge by revelation. (Turton 112-13)

Having examined both God's nature and man's character, we've learned three things about special revelation: it is necessary, it is possible, and it is probable (not only probable, but highly probable).

Role of Logic

The logical question which should follow is how can the revelation be identified and verified? This is where the role of correct reasoning comes in.

The law of rationality says that men should draw only such conclusions as are warranted by the evidence, or, as Lionel Ruby put it, "We ought to justify our conclusions by adequate evidence," To say that evidence is adequate is to say that it is relevant to and/or sufficient to warrant the conclusion to which it is directed. (Warren, Logic 14)

To test the genuineness of a claim of revelation, one must examine the evidence. We use reason to determine which claim to revelation is actually the revelation of God, we use reason to interpret it, then we depend on the Bible as the truth.

The following question might well be raised: How do you decide just what criteria a document would have to have in order to be regarded as inspired and authoritative? The answer is: By the use of reason. If the objector should then say, "But you thus make human reasoning the ultimate judge," then we reply that such is simply not the case. While it is true that we must use our powers of reason in order to ascertain the marks (criteria) which would identify a document as inspired and authoritative, it is not the case that reason thus becomes ultimately authoritative. We simply use our powers of reason to find out which claim to "revelation" really is the revelation from God to man. Further, we use those same powers to accurately interpret that authoritative revelation. But we insist it is the Bible itself, not human reason which is ultimately authoritative. (This is the case because it is God's word.) We must use our reason correctly in order to be sure that what we regard as the authoritative revelation from God really is such, but, having drawn the conclusion (by the use of our reason) that the Bible is inspired and authoritative, we then depend upon the Bible as the only source of the right answer to questions pertaining to salvation from sin. (Warren, "Bible" 18-19)

One must remember that when speaking about reason and logic, we are also examining the doctrine of belief. Belief is merely the assent of the mind, or understanding to truth supported by adequate proof. Man is a multi-faceted being. He is an intellectual, emotional, volitional and spiritual being. All of these facets, when used correctly, are needed in reasoning about anything.

Man is a rational being with the ability to reason properly, This would mean that man be looking at the evidence that is available, is able to come to a knowledge of reality, that is, the way things actually are. To say, "I know" is but to say that I, and others as well, have come to intellectual cognizance and certitude regarding a given state of affairs. In this case, that certitude is being claimed for the origin and nature of the Bible. . . . Such a knowledgable [sic] claim is made to dispel any form of agnostic approach relative to the nature of God's word—the Bible. The Christian position is the view which holds that man can come to know that the Bible is God's verbally inspired Word because the evidence demands such a conclusion. (Laws 15)

So many in the world today view logic and faith as diametrically opposed ideas. If a person has faith in the Bible, then he is illogical. If a person is truly logical, he will be "too intelligent" for the irrationality of faith. This attitude could be no further from the truth. Faith cannot truly exist as such without logic. Honestly, the seasoned student of the Bible would also affirm correctly that true logic will not exist without faith.

Concede, for example, that all men are mortal, and that Socrates is a man, and then Reason will, of necessity, draw the conclusion that Socrates is mortal. If she is not satisfied with the conclusion, she may review the premises. But let their correctness be conceded, and then Reason has no alternative left but to draw the conclusion and to acquiesce in it, whether she fully comprehends it or not. This, then, is her province in every department of truth to which the human mind has access. It is simply by a process of abstraction, comparison, and generalization to draw from the data otherwise furnished, the proper inferences and conclusions. And hence it is obvious that her relations to Divine Revelation are most intimate and important. The very first question that naturally arises in the mind of every man concerning the Bible respects its origin. Is it of human, or is it of Divine origin? Is it the word of man's wisdom, or is it, as it claims to be, the word of the living God? To answer this question, therefore, on the ground of all the evidence variously furnished, is the first province of Reason in matters pertaining to Divine Revelation. God requires no man to believe without sufficient evidence. (Milligan 18, emp. added)

Remember, reason is what we use to determine what God's revelation is. Once God's revelation is found, it becomes the authority. Once this occurs, parts which previously could not be reached by reason alone can and should be accepted (e.g., The Bible is the Word of God, 2 Timothy 3:16; the Bible teaches the doctrine of the Trinity, 2 Corinthians 13:14; burial in water is necessary for cleansing from sin, Mark 16:16). If the Bible is the Word of God, and the Bible teaches doctrine X, then you can know that doctrine X is true. This must be true if the Bible is God's Word. If the Bible stated that it and it alone is God’s Word, then my search is over. I do not have to read every other religious work to prove or disprove its claim of inspiration. I already know it is not God's Word based on what God's real Word says. This is correct reasoning, plain and simple.

Inspiration Explained

There are many views of how the writers of the Bible were "inspired." Before we understand what inspiration is, let's notice some of these false views.

(1) There are some who forthrightly deny that there is anything special about the Bible. To these, the Bible is just another book—a good book, perhaps—but a book of human origin. (2) Modernism claims that the Bible is a compilation of existing human documents, brought together and edited by George—George Redactor, that is! (3) Some claim that the Bible is miraculously inspired in some places, or in a measure, or to a certain extent. We ask: in what places? in what measure? to what extent? who decides? This idea that God (somehow) bestowed upon certain men indefinite, nebulous thoughts, and allowed these men to place the "thoughts in their own words." (Deaver 7)

There is also the view of an inspiration much like mechanical dictation.

The sacred author was wholly passive, registering and transmitting the revelation the way a tape recorder would work today. His personality was completely set aside, so that the text might be free from any fallible human aspects. It would, therefore, be like the claims of the Muslims for the Koran [and similarly in Mormonism]: already fully spelled out in Arabic in heaven, it supposedly came down to earth with no change whatsoever. We declare, on the contrary, that God did not at all annihilate the personalities of Moses, David, John and Paul. Their style, temperament and personal feelings are everywhere apparent (see Rom. 9:1-5). (Pache 66)

There are obvious problems with each of these proposed explanations of the Bible's inspiration. In each, the problem can be precipitated to one word: authority. In each of the previous pseudo-explanations, the absolute authority for what was finally doctrine rests in a man; in either the writer or in the reader. Neither of these can be the case. The very need for an absolute standard of morality necessitates an unchanging standard that rests in no man but in one superior to all men: God.

So, what is inspiration? "Inspiration (in the limited sense of the word, as used in this work) is the determining influence exercised by the Holy Spirit on the writers of the Old and New Testaments in order that they might proclaim and set down in an exact and authentic way the message as received from God" (Pache 45). In 2 Timothy 3:16-17, Paul states, "All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work." The Greek word Paul used was theopneustos, which means God-breathed. The message that comes from God's Word did not originate in the writer, but in God Himself. Second Peter 1:20-21 reads, "knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation [read origin], for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit” (emp. added).

Plenary Verbal Inspiration

These two words are often included in explanations of biblical inspiration. "Plenary" means full or complete. This gives the idea that every book is equally inspired by God. "Verbal" inspiration is the idea that even the words and in fact the ideas behind the words are inspired by God through the Holy Spirit. The scholar Pache states it plainly: ''We believe that in the composition of the original manuscripts, the Holy Spirit guided the authors even in their choice of expressions—and this throughout all the pages of the Scriptures—still without effacing the personalities of the different men" (71).

The Church has held from the beginning that the Bible is the Word of God in such a sense that its words, though written by men and bearing indelibly impressed upon them the marks of their human origin, were written, nevertheless, under such an influence of the Holy Ghost as to be also the words of God, the adequate expression of His mind and will. It has always recognized that this conception of coauthorship implies that the Spirit's superintendence extends to the choice of the words by the human authors . . . and preserves its product from everything inconsistent with a divine authorship—thus securing, among other things, that entire truthfulness which is everywhere presupposed in and asserted for Scripture. (Warfield 173)

Realize that inspiration is the guarantee that the revelation given is divinely accurate. Without that guarantee, all one has is a leap in the dark as to whether what he reads is really from God or just from some man.

The Basic Argument for the Inspiration of the Bible

It must be highlighted that the purpose of this study is to examine how to prove the inspiration of the Bible. It is not this treatise's duty to disprove all attacks on the Bible's inspiration. . . . Greater men than I have sought to form a logical argument that completely defends the Bible's claim as the Word of God. Credit must be given first and foremost to the late Thomas B. Warren for the following argument's creation and defense.

Here is the argument, set out in valid argument form.

1.       If it is the case that the Bible possesses property A, property B, property C... property Z (where the total situation involved in having such properties makes it clear that the Bible is beyond mere human production) then the Bible is the word of God.

2.       It is the case that the Bible possesses property A, property B, property C... property Z.

3.       Therefore the Bible is the word of God.

4.       In this argument, when I refer to property A, property B, property C, etc., I mean for these designations to stand for affirmative propositions regarding some fact regarding the Bible, It is clear that the argument is valid in form... Thus the only way the argument could be shown to be unsound (that is, that the truthfulness of the conclusion does not follow from the premises) would be to show that at least one of the premises is false. (Warren,  “Bible” 17-18)

Many have tried to improve on this argument, to no avail. Some of the readers may respond that this argument is too simple. One will often find that when the Bible and logic are approached simply, the answer will be just as simple. To show the reader how the argument would be completely filled out, see the following.

1.       If it is the case that the Bible contains predictive prophecies which were clearly made in advance of their unquestioned fulfillment, is characterized by a humanly impossible unity, treats matters of science in a way which transcends human invention in the days when its various parts were written, has a view of reality otherwise unknown in human thought, has been confirmed by all the accepted means of historical research (e.g., archaeology), and is free from demonstrable error (as well as possessing other features which are beyond mere human wisdom or invention) then the Bible is the Word of God.

2.       The Bible contains predictive prophecies which were clearly made in advance of their unquestioned fulfillment, is characterized by a humanly impossible unity, treats matters of science in a way which transcends human invention in the days when its various parts were written, has a view of reality otherwise unknown in human thought, has been confirmed by all the accepted means of historical research (e.g., archaeology), and is free from demonstrable error (as well as possessing other features which are beyond mere human wisdom or invention).

3.       Therefore the Bible is the Word of God. (Shelly ix-x)

Note that in this list of propositions there are two types of evidences: internal and external. Internal evidences are qualities within the Bible that, when examined, prove in and of themselves that the Bible is God's Word (e.g., unity, predictive prophecies made and fulfilled, scientific foreknowledge, etc.). External evidences are things outside the Bible that are brought to the Bible that verify its accuracy. Conformity to facts does not prove inspiration. Elementary school math books teach 2 + 2 = 4. Just because this is true does not mean that the math book was inspired by God. External evidences are confirmatory in nature rather than primary in nature. Realize though that it is essential for external evidences to be accurate for the subject to be the Word of God. If a book were found that claimed to be written by God in which was written, "Two plus two shall equal five, thus saith the Lord," the reader can know logically that the book is a farce. Why? Because for a being to truly be the absolute and almighty God, He would have to be perfect. No perfect being creates inherently imperfect creations.

Epistemic Distance

Some might object that an infinitely powerful Creator would be able to communicate with man in whatever media so as to completely convince all who heard it (i.e. God would be able to create a book with such overwhelming evidence in His favor, that the reader would be compelled to believe). This was alluded to earlier in the section on general revelation. A person can look at the world and decide to live as though there is no God. The same applies to the special revelation from God. A person can read the entire Bible from cover to cover and close it never to obey one command therein.

It may sound peculiar, but this is exactly as it must be. While God is more than capable of creating an overwhelming revelation that imposes His will on a person, He is not willing to do so. Such an act would be inconsistent with a perfectly good God. How could a being be justly rewarded for doing something when it really had no choice in the matter in the first place? Also conversely, how could a person be justly punished when not enough evidence was given to support the desired conclusion? For example, in Genesis 4, when Abel offered the good sacrifice (according to faith in God's command, Hebrews 11:4) and Cain offered the unlawful sacrifice (1 John 3:4), Abel was respected, and Cain was not. They both knew what God wanted from them (Romans 10: 17). God did not provide such overwhelming evidence for such a sacrifice that would have resulted in both Cain and Abel irresistibly compelled to do so. Likewise, God did not allow Adam and Eve to be so uninformed that they would have been forced by Satan to eat the fruit. They both had exactly enough knowledge to make the willful choice. One obeyed, the other did not.

What we are dealing with here is what is called the "epistemic distance." Epistemology is the study of the "origin, nature, method, and limits of knowledge" (Deaver 28). The epistemic distance is the exact amount of knowledge (read evidence) a person has been given to come to a correct conclusion, but not so much knowledge as to render the person helpless to resist. Some call this free will. Without this "free moral agency" man would be a programmed robot, incapable of disobedience, but also incapable of true obedience.

When the Bible is examined in this light, it reveals the extraordinary wisdom of God. Not only is He capable of giving the world the only way to heaven, but He has given it in a way that every person can accept it based on the evidence or ignore it as he chooses.

The Bible's Claim

The case for biblical inspiration must also be made from the Bible itself. Remember. if a book claims to not be from God, then it is not from God. If a book made no claim, it could be said that one is forcing the claim on it unnecessarily. If the Bible does claim to be from God, it deserves attention.

First, let us look at some of the Old Testament passages that speak of the origin and inspiration of the Scriptures. Moses in Exodus 4:10-12 pleads with God because he feels he is not eloquent enough to speak to Pharaoh, but God tells him, "Now therefore, go, and I will be with your mouth and teach you what you shall say.” In Exodus 17:14; 24:4, and 34:27, God tells Moses what to write in the books. In Deuteronomy 18:17-18;. Isaiah 51:15-16, and Jeremiah 1:9, God said He would put the words in the person's mouth. No less than 420 times was the declaration of inspiration made in the Pentateuch,

Statements such as "God said," and ''the word of the Lord " appear thousands of times in the Bible. There are over 3800 such statements in the Old Testament alone, all of which make direct claim that the Old Testament is the inspired word of God. In the first chapter alone, the statement, "And God said" is found at least ten times. . . . There are some 175 claims of inspiration in Psalm 119 alone. (Walker 400-01)

Even Jesus claimed that the Old Testament was inspired by God. In John 10:34-35, Jesus quotes Psalm 82:6 and says that the Scripture cannot be broken. This shows the indestructible authority of God's Word. This is a claim of plenary inspiration. In Matthew 5:17-18, Jesus then said, "Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill. For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled" (emp. added). The "jot" was the smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet, and the "tittle" was the smallest distinguishing mark in Hebrew (e.g., the mark that changes O to Q). This is a claim of verbal inspiration even down to the very letters and marks used. It is perfect, which is what you would expect if it were 100% the Word of God.

Now let us examine some of the New Testament claims for inspiration. As was noted earlier; 2 Timothy 3:16-17 teaches that all Scripture is "God-breathed." When speaking to the apostles in Matthew 10:16-20, Jesus tells them not only will they be provided the words to speak, but even the manner with which to speak them. John 14:26, 29; 4:25; 16:13, and 1 Corinthians 14:32 all teach that the Holy Spirit guides the men to accurately speak the Word of God.


Clearly, the Bible claims throughout its pages that it is in fact the Word of God. As was stated earlier, if the Bible were to make such a claim, then it must be given some attention. So, why is it so readily abused and ignored by the world today? Indifference? Ignorance? Remember that every person has the same evidence before him (Romans 1:20). The answer then is rebellion. We have studied how to prove the Bible is inspired by God. Now it is our duty to determine if it is what it says it is: God's Word.

The world needs to know that God has given his word to man: That the Bible is that word: That the Bible is the inspired, the inerrant, the complete, the powerful, and authoritative word of the eternal God. . . . The only good reason why religious doctrine should be accepted is that it is true. If a particular doctrine is not true then there is no really good reason why it should be accepted. (Warren, "Bible" 24)

Finally, in the words of B.C. Goodpasture:

The Bible has been in the fiery furnace of human investigation and opposition for these many centuries, yet it emerges without the smell of fire upon its garments. It has stood the acid test of practical experience. It has never failed when fairly tried. We have seen it in the forum of public discussion, we have seen it at the bedside of the dying, we have seen it at the graves of the dead; yet we have never seen it weighed and found wanting. It is God's book. (39)


-Kriss Cecil-Crihfield


Works Cited

Deaver, Roy C. Ascertaining Bible Authority. Jonesboro: Biblical Notes, 1997.

Flatt, Dowell. "The Necessity of Revelation." The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible. 1971 Bible Lectureship of Harding Graduate School of Religion. Nashville: Gospel Advocate, 1971.

Goodpasture, B.C. "The Inspiration of the Bible." The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible. 1971 Bible Lectureship of Harding Graduate School of Religion. Nashville: Gospel Advocate, 1971.

Laws, Jim. "The Argument for the Inspiration of the Bible." The Inspiration of the Bible. Twenty-First Annual Spiritual Sword Lectureship Pulaski: Sain, 1996.

Milligan, R. Reason and Revelation. Cincinnati: Carroll, 1868.

Pache, Rene. The Inspiration and Authority of Scripture. Chicago: Moody, 1969.

Shelly, Rubel. What Shall we Do With The Bible? Jonesboro: National Christian, 1975.

Turton, W. H. The Truth of Christianity. New York: Putnam’s, 1913.

Walker, Don. “What the Old Testament Claims for Itself.” The Inspiration of the Bible. Twenty-First Annual Spiritual Sword Lecturship. Pulaski: Sain, 1996.

Warfield, B. B. The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible. Philadelphia: Presbyterian & Reformed, 1964.

Warren, Thomas B. "The Bible is God's Word—-The Meaning of and Basic Argument for This Claim." The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible. 1971 Bible Lectureship Harding Graduate School of Religion. Nashville: Gospel Advocate, 1971.

- - -. Logic and the Bible. Moore: National Christian P, 1982.